Subsea pipelines always require the design of mechanical components such as:
Theses components are traditionally designed based on stress linearization and stress categorisation. However, with increased computation powers of desktop computers, economical and robust design of components is possible using nonlinear finite element method and LRFD design criteria. The advanced methods of components design utilise “Design By Analysis” (DBA) approach based on Load and Resistance Factors Design (LRFD) codes such as BS EN-13445, PD5500, or ASME VIII. Based on DBA and employing LRFD, the load factors (>1.0) are applied to a component with resistance factors (<1.0) applied to the material strength. The criteria of design are usually based on limiting the strain in the component or check the structural stability or solution convergence.